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Foundations of Education Curricula

This booklet to familiarize Iranian Scholars Foundation Learning Curriculum is presented in conjunction with :

Concept Plan

The program consists of a preposition and the word on. The letter refers to something previously recorded or written. In other words letters written something <b class="highlight"> school website </ b> to resemble. So the general concept according to the letter written texts.

Definition Program

A simple definition of the program can be said to perform tasks previously written. Based on this definition, the authenticity of the letter writing.

Difference between writing and speaking

Forget saying or sayings are being violated, and changes are being denied. Said there is little validity, even in proportion to time, substantive changes to the content of the utterances and the speaker is very difficult to accurately diagnose. This feature is also available for writing, but relatively words and sayings will be very limited. Accordingly writing have authenticity and validity in time and space, more lasting.

The concept plan

Term planning of the program and Masdar ink is spilled. Shed programs in pronunciation is not easy and it is not used. Instead of pouring the term planned program that is easy to pronounce, is used. So in general terms, refers to people planning to do specific tasks to achieve specific goals, action plans are making. The plan at that time, location, facilities and resources that are accessed, is said to be planning.

Although the definition of planning

· Plan to achieve the desired

· Dvrngr process directed to the logic of collective action

· Way to conduct human activities calculated to determine

· Organize the necessary activities to achieve the targets of the

· Action plan that can best available resources to achieve desired goals

The concept of curriculum

The word curricula curriculum and its meaning is equivalent to the distance and the way a person should learn in order to reach the target.

Definitions of Curriculum

· All experiences, readings, discussions, individual and group activities, and other actions under the supervision and guidance the school gives students. (Shariatmadari)

· The curriculum includes content and the formal and that the school will be supervised Yadgyrndgah. (Ronald Dahl)

Types of Curriculum

General curriculum in both official (Apparent) And informal (Hidden) Divide - is. Formal curriculum or explicitly refers to a program that has been running in schools and every moment of the little bag that can be informed. Such as grade math curriculum that amount of hours per week and the book, the teacher, the school and …All is clear.

Complex learning program constitutes one of the hidden curriculum. Not far from the little bag and it was informed in time and place.. One can say that most of the hidden curriculum teaches. When students come together from every door, speak to them in their learning experiences indirectly provide each other. So:

The formal curriculum.

Formal curriculum includes coursework and school education is considered.

The Hidden Curriculum

Hidden curriculum includes psychological interactions, norms, group dynamics, emotions, experiences, attitudes and interests of teachers and students..

Comparison of Educational Curriculum

Overall, the curriculum is designed to provide learning opportunities.

Teaching, learning tools, learners in the learning process. In fact, education is seen as the opportunity of learning designs. Therefore, the training program or operational implementation of the curriculum.. Where in the curriculum, the teaching makes sense and where it is taught, the curriculum is to be. Well, there is a need for a good education curriculum.

Teaching is an activity that seeks to fulfill the learning objective is. Training includes learning activities in time and space. When a person reads a newspaper, the newspaper has been trained writer. Similarly, all human activities during his life, it indirectly leads to the concept of education. It has trained throughout their lives, and may not be aware of it. But teaching, special education and informed that there are at least two people are needed. Yaddhndh one person and one learner.

According to what was said, it could be that man had his whole life in teaching and learning and being a part of his life teaching (Particular means of learning) Is. Teaching both layers - such as the curriculum - are. It should be noted that the teaching curriculum joins - will. Compared to the overall universe of human Curriculum and Instruction - different than it receives - is. Its exclusive training school and university classes. Figure ancestry Curriculum, Teaching and Learning show - show.

Comparison of Educational Planning and Curriculum

Program - Educational

Educational planning, educational planning is the organization of training activities, mobilizing human and non-human resources to achieve educational goals (Hardware)

Program - a lesson plan

Lesson planning, curriculum planning teaching and learning activities of the organization in order to create desired changes in behavior of learners (Software)

General curriculum, is considered part of educational planning. Educational planning, curriculum development is not limited to, the whole community will take. Curriculum in schools and classrooms and formal learning environments are used. The qualitative aspects of the curriculum more (Applications) Include planning and training (Hardware) More quantitative aspects of the education process has.

Model - The Curriculum

Curriculum models can be classified in two groups.. In a group of people who believe the purpose of education can be determined accurately expressed and realize a linear manner. This group of scientific and technical approach[۱] The curriculum are.

In contrast, non-technical approaches are in the people of the "mind", "personal", "hobby" being, "an exploration of" stress. They do not care about the product and production planning approaches to learning and learning through "action-oriented" emphasis. This curriculum approach as "Open" does not see the exact design. This way, this way, all those who are related to the type of curriculum and curriculum development are involved in the affected. Learners to know themselves better than anyone else.

Therefore, the identification and selection of learning experiences that facilitate the development of social and cognitive competence are more. This approach to the "self-[۲ ..]'And' personal demands[۳]»« Self-evaluation[۴]"And his efforts towards unifying the[۵] Focuses.

The main focus of this approach to curriculum content but also on the individual's activity. Content is important so that students can acquire the necessary means. People who have this bias toward programs Yadkyry as a "whole" see. Unable to actually learn the exact steps or specific areas such as cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains into. In this approach, the curriculum before students come to class prepared, but teachers should not be co-inclusive educational dialogue with the appropriate issues for review to determine. In this way more Ghyrtknyky curriculum models, instead of prior preparation is achieved through the interaction between student and teacher.

Based on the scientific and technical point of view, "Rationalism[۶]"And" empiricism[۷]"It is rather. And the nonscientific orientation Ghyrtknyky to "Ashraqgrayy[۸]"And what McDonald's[۹] "Aesthetic rationality[۱۰]"Versus" technical rationality[۱۱]"It is called the dependent. Ghyrtknyky fans and unscientific approach to curriculum design project "Orbit Baby[۱۲]"Somewhat" problem oriented[۱۳]»Support.

Having outlined the main features of both technical and non-scientific approach Ghyrtknyky examples of models of these two approaches is presented:

Model Babbitt (Technical)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Chicago was interested in teacher education, curriculum appropriate time to replace existing programs and new methods, new materials and new ways to be. He believed that the scientific goals can be achieved through the experience of life had not been achieved. That's why he uses a pervasive set goals so that performance can be considered. Babbitt in his next book, published in 1924, won two season goals. He first describes the activities and objectives of the task or tasks that can be extracted from it knows that the useful purposes which finds expression. Babbitt has designed a few examples of goals that are listed:

The ability to organize and present your ideas to others when:

Thousand) Site D) Verbal reports

B. ..) Quote of their experiences.) Guidance

C) Discussion is very serious and formal and) Speaking to the audience

The ability to collect, organize and interpret facts needed.

In conducting the ability to achieve the ultimate goals Babbitt models[۱۴] Qualitative targets that are written in leading[۱۵] A written form in any age group or class differences would. He says: Goals should be specific in terms of what students based on practice or experience are expressed. In this case it possible for teachers to pursue the objectives and goals of families and students understand.

The purpose of writing the Babbitt

· Targets with definite terms and must act according to what the students are posted.

· In writing the purposes of <b class="highlight"> Language </ b> be used everyday so that they are easily understood.

· The overall aim should be avoided because it is unusable in practice to prepare Curriculum.

For example, he says,: "The ability to take care of your health" is so general that it is not applicable. The goal should be decomposed into specific goals. "The ability to set your bedroom air, the ability to care for small animals, microscopic," "ability to take care of their teeth," etc.. According Babbitt vague and too high-level goals like "Manners make the man", "Culture and the Self" should be avoided. Because they are produced only for special purposes "curriculum" and "teaching" and notifying parents and teachers continue to permit the light guide.

Model Chartrz[۱۶]

"Chartrz" Using and organizing ideas, "Herbert Spencer," "Franklin Babbitt" and "John Dewey," the 1924 book "Rebuilding Curriculum[۱۷]Wrote '. In his book "functional approach" to design a curriculum to systematically raises the issues of education and professional finely detailed material presented. Chartrz with Tasyrgrftn analytical methods Spencer and Taylor noted that the first step is to prepare a curriculum defines the main objectives. He believes the curriculum should aim to define their "ideals" and "activity" are analyzed. Using job analysis methods (Introspection, interviews, questionnaires, and real analysis of what work was done on) World War I was known in the Army. Chartrz stated that up until the point where students can learn without the help of others to analyze.

Preparing curriculum Chartrz views[۱۸]

· The first stage: The study of human social life of the main goals of education set.

· Dom stage: Goals in two "ideal" (۴) And "Activity - News» (۵) Analysis and the analysis of business units continue.

· Som stage: These components arranged in order of importance to.

· The fourth stage: Due to higher value activities for children and for adults who have low values, the components are arranged more carefully adjust.

· Stage پndjem: Using a list of topics that are available in the school dedicated to the training set.

· Stage Shechem: Good practice in the conduct of these activities and aspirations is achieved specify.

· Stage Hvtm: Based on the nature of children's psychological, educational materials, educational sort order.

Model Tyler (Technical)

Tyler is without a doubt one of the leading scholars models, technical scientific. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction (1949) Tyler Book[۱۹] Published in which to review the curriculum and instructional issues logically presented. He noted that the curriculum should do these steps:

Four basic principles of the model Tyler

1 goal - training school

Two educational experiences related to the goals,

3 organized practices,

۴ـ ارزشیابی هدف­ها.

تایلر یادآوری کرد که باید برنامه‌ریزان درسی هدف­های کلی را بر اساس گردآوری اطلاعات از سه منبع: The school and community Yadgyrnh set; then spend learning objectives of the two filters Philosophy and Psychology. After two straight goal - to become a special education.

It should be noted that Tyler's term goal - educational uses, but the goal - the behavior of the year - the most recent being supported are not supported. Then how to select Tyler discusses learning experiences to achieve the objectives.

According to previous experiences with learning experiences to be inclusive and to reach a position where he also coaches about learning and human development in the light of what they are elected. Tyler discusses his experiences organizing the next step. He says: Learning experiences should be set so that the highest impact on their learning. He believes that a curriculum elements such as ideas, concepts, values ​​and skills - like beads on a string in the construction of the curriculum should be.

The key elements of an organizational role to play in teaching and learning experiences in a variety of topics that relate to each other, as well as ideas, concepts, values ​​and skills to be related to content within specific topics.

Tyler model diagram

Tyler is very important to evaluate the curriculum allows. She reminds us that if educators want to discover that you are actually learning experiences Bkhshydhand achieve the expected results or not should make use of evaluation, it is also clear that the program has been effective on the assessment or not. Although Tyler Curriculum Model in the diagram did not yet show that such a model can:

Tba model[۲۰] (Technical)

"Hilda Tba" believed that those who implement the curriculum should participate in planning. He is a bottom-up approach[۲۱] Supported. Tyler's model is similar to the model. Although the deployment model Tyler Planning Center are working with people who did not comment. Coaches thought necessary to prepare students to be prepared curriculum and program of action to. This is the same model as the model of a "top-down[۲۲]» یا «مدیریتی[۲۳]"Is read.

"Tba" sequence and order management believed that the model does not correctly. The curriculum should be designed by those who have used the program. Teachers should go through special units of teaching and learning for students to begin the process of curriculum. A detailed outline of the inductive method of achieving. The same way that the traditional analogy method that would be part of the overall plan was started, and was opposed by.

The program - curriculum planning Tba

Tba seven main stage for the program - which is mentioned in the lesson plan, teachers can do the following.

1 recognize the need[۲۴]: Teacher (Curriculum) Curriculum development process starts with determining the needs of the students..

2 Determine the target[۲۵]: The teacher needs to set the goal - to be given to research that.

3 Select content[۲۶]: با توجه به هدف­های تعیین شده محتوای مناسب انتخاب می‌شود. محتوا نه تنها با هدفها باید سازگار باشد، بلکه اعتبار و اهمیت لازم را نیز باید دارا باشد.

۴ـ سازماندهی محتوا[۲۷]: The teacher does not have to rely on content selection, it is necessary to develop the learners' progress and interests to organize content.

5 Selection of learning experiences[۲۸]: Content is provided to the students and they sort and organize content. In this way - teaching requires teachers engage students with content.

6 Organize learning activities: As to the content, sequence and organization of activities - learning should also be organized. Sequencing activity - based learning content is done, the student teacher should also be considered.

7 Evaluation: Curriculum must determine what purpose - that have achieved. For this evaluation are. Assessment methods should be developed by the students and teachers.

This model has advantages Tba. But experts believe this model has a weakness - there is. "Robert Zeiss," noting that the main weakness of this model is that the concept of participation in the democratic process in a technically complex and specialized uses. This criticism does not mean that teachers should participate in curriculum development. They participate because they are performed by teachers in the classroom curriculum, but the point is that teachers' expertise can not afford to become involved in the planning process. Bottom-up design is assumed that the expertise and competence of teachers sufficient time for such formal activities have.

مدل سیلور و الکساندر (Technical)[۲۹]

"Silver" and "Alexander" a systematic approach to the curriculum offered.

1 goal - the overall objective - minor domains

Curriculum overview and detailed analysis of the objectives, the planning begin. Objectives in the areas of curriculum are. Four areas should be considered in organizing goals: Personal Growth[۳۰], Human Relations[۳۱]Skills - learning[۳۲] And specialization[۳۳].

2 Design Curriculum

After the first phase of curriculum content, organization and opportunity - make decisions appropriate learning. In view of these decisions - the philosophical impact. The curriculum emphasizes the scientific disciplines? Or learning or social needs?

3 Run Curriculum

After deciding on the design of curriculum, teachers plan - will provide training. That is, they plan to run Drmyavrnd. Method teachers - and those who are selected will be used to help students learn.

4 curriculum evaluation

The last step is evaluation model. At this stage, planners, and teacher evaluation techniques that can provide an accurate picture of the value and success of curriculum use.

Curriculum design should be evaluated on the quality of teaching and learning practices will focus. از طریق چنین ارزشیابی جامع برنامه‌ریزان درسی تصمیم‌گیری می‌کنند که آیا برنامه را نگه دارند، اصلاح کنند یا انتخاب نمایند.

تعیین هدف­های کلی و جزیی

انتخاب و طرح برنامه درسی

Plan - the implementation of the curriculum.

Method of choice - Evaluation

Decision Model Hawkins (Technical)

Model, "Hawkins[۳۴]"Another example of the model - a scientific technique that has seven steps: Make sense of the curriculum.[۳۵] And legitimizing[۳۶] Identifying, selecting content, selecting a learning experience, implementation, evaluation, maintenance[۳۷].

Legitimizing the concept of curriculum

This feature makes the model unique Hawkins. در این مرحله تصمیم‌گیرندگان برنامه درسی در خصوص مفهومی ساختن مفاهیم اساسی برنامه درسی بحث و تصمیم‌گیری می‌کنند. What is the nature of the curriculum? .

تشخیص برنامه درسی

The second stage recognition model curriculum that involves two main tasks: Theorems and inference needs to become the aim - the general part of the requirements. When new programs to meet students' needs were suitable for the purpose - general and detailed guidelines are set as.

Sometimes - and target - of the expected learning outcomes are expressed. Such a purpose - to provide a framework to determine the content that is the next step.

Select content

Select what content is relevant curriculum. Content "matter"[۳۸] Curriculum that is what should be taught and content, facts, concepts, principles, theories and generalizations - it takes.

همچنین محتوا به فرایندهای شناختی که یادگیرندگان در موقع تفکر درباره محتوا یا مطالعه محتوا مورد استفاده قرار می‌دهند مربوط می‌شود. Content as the method - refers to the learner's application of knowledge and skills - and their transfer their learning to others who use.

Selection of learning experiences

This phase of training is. At this point the question - the answer is fundamental:

Content with how the procedure - that is provided to the students?

How content is experienced by students?

To effectively build and fun to learn what types of activities - training should be designed?

Curriculum, how it should be presented and implemented to target - total and partial realized?

At this stage the teacher about educational materials such as:

Books - textbooks, software programs, movies - and books - reference materials, maps, pictures, etc. make decisions.

Run Curriculum

After selecting and organizing curricular experiences and matching them with the content of the program is ready to run. برای حصول اطمینان از اینکه برنامه درسی به نحو مطلوبی اجرا خواهد شد لازم است با یک شیوه مدیریتی مناسب برنامه جدید به کارکنان و مسئولا ن که در اجرای برنامه دخالت خواهند داشت معرفی شود تا تعهدی در آنان ایجاد شود.

Evaluation

This process continues throughout the life course. Required data should be regularly "new" to be able to modify or delete the curriculum decisions. To do so, simply run the test - of academic achievement in school is not enough conventional. Data collection should utilize the various tools.

Maintenance program

The last step is to keep the model. Maintenance includes methods and devices useful function ensures that the curriculum. This category includes topics such as. Staff training programs, predictable funding for essential materials, training guides for help in training teachers to access, connect communities ongoing dialogue with them so that the parents are a sense of belonging program. When the curriculum was implemented in most schools it is forgotten that the purpose of holding it - the general and the details of the new management plan maintenance need.

Model[۳۹] Wayne Ashtyn and Fantyny[۴۰] (Gyrtknyky)

Beginning in the 1970s, many people in the scientific field position that schools emphasize the imbalance in the curriculum review was. Gerald Wayne Ashtyn and Mario Fantyny believed that education should aim to emphasize human affairs - the training should reflect the individual interests of the students are Alafrady. The goal of this curriculum specialists in human and knowledge students will develop their imagination and their. Wayne Ashtyn and Fantyny model curriculum is designed in the form below.

The Vienna model Ashtyn and Fantyny

Thousand) Comprehensive understanding

At this stage, it apparently sounds simple, but most of the time they are preparing a comprehensive curriculum with neglect or inattention to. At this stage the data, demographic and cultural curriculum for students, as well as the levels of growth and mental characteristics - are given their cognitive. However, this feature - generally considered as a group, not individually.

B. ..) Specified Interests

At this point the special interests that are common in certain student groups are determined. This preference can be changed according to circumstances. Planners should pay attention to the feature - the emotional and cultural, social, likes to explore and are based on education.

Particular interest were the reasons we chose them specifically to say and what to do to satisfy this interest, we specify the. Psycho-social interests should be given, so that teachers and educational approaches to suit their interests, students may choose.

C) Organizing Ideas[۴۱]

Curriculum and after determining the interest asserted, "organizing ideas" are selected. The ideas, concepts and principles that curriculum content is generated based on its.

در این قسمت این صاحب&shy;نظران به مقدار زیادی با برنامه‌ریزان رویکردهای علمی ـ تکنیکی که مراحل برنامه‌ریزی را در یک مسیر انجام می‌دهند مشابه می‌شوند، اما تفاوت اینجا است که ایده‌های سازمان‌دهنده بر اساس علایق فراگیر انتخاب می‌شوند، نه بنا به آنچه رشته‌های علمی ایجاب می‌کند.

د ..) Selected areas based on their content, form

Based on these issues, personal issues, social organization are.

The first is the content of pervasive experiences, the person comes from growing.

The second kind of overarching content linked to emotions and passions; Braymsalvatfvlayqfrd about friends, sports - and Vklvp - these are Mytvanndtyynknndh content.

The third type of content, the social life of the student learns Mhtvayyastkh. This content is called "experimental" is.

هـ) Skills - Learning

What skills inclusive learning content - requires? Skills - Basic reading, writing and arithmetic, including skill - that need to be learned. Other types of skills - the "social consciousness[۴۲]"Are related to the self and others are used to describe your relationship with. Here Surround with his peers and adults in touch. "Skills - social[۴۳]"Measure" skills - cognitive[۴۴]"Are important.

And) Method - teaching

What teacher - from students to learn the content and skills - appropriate to the conduct of life? . Learners to interact with teachers and peers to grow emotionally and "Rate yourself" in order to build. At this stage it is important for teachers that students see themselves as individuals. Teachers should be - learning to coordinate with different interests and talents..

ز ..) Result

Final results expected in the curriculum is concerned. In this part of the question - is considered. The content has been learned? .

Review of models

Two models - the curriculum was explained. A model - a science which mainly technical curriculum development process will follow the logic of science, ie, as in any human science, there are certain fixed rules and laws, regardless of its condition and current . به همین دلیل در فرایند برنامه‌ریزی به طور خطی و مرحله به مرحه تصمیم‌گیری می‌شود و بر همان منطق نیز برنامه درسی به اجرا در می‌آید.

In these models it is genuine and the rest are Azjhyt agents' attitudes and perceptions of adult education ». According to the needs of older persons and their interpretation concerning the need and necessity of education and curriculum development processes do learners have.

The reason why the needs, interests and abilities of learners are not given the necessary. With this feature views of the founders of the curriculum, "Babbitt" and "Chartrz" to experts as "Tyler", "Silver and Alexander" and "Tba" is adjusted, but the "linearity" and originality to harvest adult education : در این مدلها فراگیر در حصار برنامه درسی است. مدل­های غیرتکنیکی و غیرعلمی با اینکه در انتقاد از معایب مدل­های تکنیکی ـ علمی به وجود آمدند، اما از جنبه‌های دیگر دچار افراط شدند. مدل­های غیرتکنیکی از خطی بودن و محدودیت مدل­های تکنیکی انتقاد نمودند، ولی در یک موضع افراطی علایق و گرایشات فراگیر را تنها محور و جهت‌دهنده به فعالیت­های یادگیری و انتخاب و سازماندهی محتوا در نظر گرفتند. با اینکه فراگیر موضوع تعلیم و تربیت است و برنامه‌ریزان درسی توجه ویژه‌ای به استعدادها، توانایی­ها و علایق او باید داشته باشند، اما مصلحت نیست برنامه درسی را تابع فراگیر کنند و اهداف و محتوا را صرفاً بر اساس علایق او تعیین و تنظیم نمایند.

اگر مدل­های تکنیکی ـ علمی برداشت بزرگسالان از ضرورت­های تعلیم و تربیت و نیازهای جامعه را در مجموعه برنامه درسی غالب می‌سازند مدل­های غیرتکنیکی علایق فراگیر را عامل منحصر به فرد تلقی می‌کند. در مدل­های تکنیکی فراگیر در یک خط محصور می‌ماند و در مدل­های غیرتکنیکی برنامه درسی با خطی که فراگیر ترسیم می‌کند جهت می‌یابد. می‌توان گفت: در مدل­های تکنیکی در فرایند برنامه‌ریزی تصمیم‌گیری برنامه‌ریزان اصل است و در مدل­های غیرتکنیکی تمایلات فراگیران اصل است. در حالی که نه آن و نه این هیچکدام اصل نیست. رشد و تربیت فراگیر و آماده ساختن او برای زندگی اجتماعی محور تعلیم و تربیت است. گاهی اقتضا می‌کند که برنامه‌ریزان درسی برای پرورش فراگیر جهت‌گیری، اهداف برنامه درسی را تعیین کنند، اما در همه تصمیم‌گیری‌ها نیازها و تواناییها و گرایش­های فراگیر را در نظر بگیرند.

قلمرو فعالیت فراگیر در محدوده‌ای است که برنامه‌ریزان طراحی می‌کنند، ولی برای نایل شدن به هدف­های آموزشی و برای شکوفایی تواناییها و خلاقیت‌ها باید فراگیران در مراحل مختلف تعلیم و تربیت نقش و مشارکت فعال داشته باشند. علاوه بر مطالب یاد شده که به طور ویژه به مدل­های تکنیکی و غیرتکنیکی مربوط می‌شد دو نکته در خور طرح نیز وجود دارد که به طور مشترک به هردو گروه از مدل­ها مربوط می‌شود. اولاً: به «نظام ارزشی» توجه نکرده‌اند. با اینکه در نگاه تحلیلی هریک از مدلها با یک جهت‌گیری فلسفی و ارزشی حمایت می‌شوند، ولی در مدل فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی نیز جهت‌گیری ارزشی باید جایگاه خاص خود را داشته باشد. هرچند در مدل تایلر فلسفه تربیتی یکی از صافی‌های اهداف در نظر گرفته شده است، اما در منابع تعیین اهداف و تصمیم‌گیری‌های نخستین برنامه ذرسی نظام ارزشی تعیین کننده است.

ثانیاً: مدل­های هردو گروه بر این اساس تنظیم شده‌اند که با چه فرایندی چیزی را به فراگیر یاد دهند. یعنی یادگیری مفاهیم، اصول، مهارت­ها و نگرش­ها محور اصلی مدلهاست منتها هرکدامیک از این دو گروه موضع‌گیری خاص به این یادگیری دارند. مدل­های تکنیکی به تصمیم‌گیری بزرگسالان و جهت دادن فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی به صورت خطی تأکید می‌کنند، ولی مدل­های غیرتکنیکی علایق فراگیر را مبنا قرار می‌دهند. با این همه در هردو گروه از مدلها به «یادگیری راه یادگیری» توجه نمی‌شود.

یافته‌ها و پژوهش­های علمی و توسعه زیاد دانش بشری حاکی از این است که یادگیری یک سری مفاهیم و اندوختن اطلاعات زیاد افراد در عصر فعلی چیز مطلوبی نیست، زیرا پیشرفت­های علمی آن چنان سریع است که تغییرات همه جانبه به وجود می‌آید که یادگیری‌های امروز افراد در آینده کاربرد نخواهند داشت.

از طرف دیگر، مسایل مختلفی فراگیران را احاطه نموده و آنان در زندگی خودشان با سوالات عمده‌ای مواجه خواهند شد. آنچه صلاحیت یادگیری‌های مداوم را به افراد می‌دهد و آنان را در مواجهه با مسایل زندگی توانا می‌سازد یادگیری راه یادگیری است. در مدل فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی باید به این ضرورت یادگیری نیز توجه شود.

به طور کلی مدل برنامه‌ریزی درسی چند ویژگی باید داشته باشد:

۱ـ نظام ارزشی به عنوان یک مبنای قوی به فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی جهت می‌دهد.

۲ـ در تعیین هدف­های برنامه درسی به تواناییها و طبقه‌بندی دانش‌آموزان توجه می‌شود و هدفها در سطوح و اشکال متناسب با این تواناییها تدوین می‌گردند.

۳ـ «یادگیری» یکی از منابع تعیین هدفهاست.

۴ـ به عواملی که در تشکیل برنامه درسی پنهان تأثیر دارند توجه می‌شود.

۵ـ فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی، خطی نیست، بلکه یک سیکل است و عناصر برنامه درسی با هم ارتباط متقابل دارند.

۶ـ در برنامه‌ریزی درسی کلیه افرادی که به نوعی در برنامه درسی سهیم هستند مشارکت می‌کنند.

۷ـ در هریک از مراحل برنامه‌ریزی فنون و روش­های مناسب ارایه می‌گردند.

۸ـ چگونگی ارتباط یک مرحله به مرحله دیگر مشخص می‌شود.

مدل پیشنهادی

با مطالعه مدل­های مختلف برنامه‌ریزی درسی و با توجه به شرایط و ویژگی­های موجود در نظام تعلیم و تربیت کشور، مدلی با مراحل زیر به صورت پیشنهادی ارایه می­گردد.

۱ـ شروع نیازسنجی برای تعیین هدف­های اصلی

۲ـ جهت‌دهی هدف­ها به ارزش­های جامعه

۳ـ تعیین تناسب هدف­ها با مواد و وسایل و فعالیت­های آموزشی

۴ـ انتخاب محتوا

۵ـ سازماندهی محتوا

۶ـ انتخاب و سازماندهی تجربیات یادگیری

۷ـ انتخاب استراتژی­های یاددهی ـ یادگیری (روش­های یادگیری و ابزار آموزشی)

۸ـ تعیین نظام ارزش‌یابی پیشرفت تحصیلی

۹ـ تعیین نقش معلم در برنامه درسی

۱۱ـ اجرای برنامه درسی

۱۲ـ اشاعه برنامه درسی

۱۳ـ بازنگری و اصلاح برنامه درسی

منابع و مآخذ

پروند، محمدحسن، مقدمات برنامه ریزی آموزشی و درسی، تهران: انتشارات صحیفه،۱۳۶۹٫

پورظهیر، علی­نقی، برنامه­ریزی آموزشی و درسی، تهران: انتشارات آگاه، ۱۳۶۹٫

شریعتمداری، علی، جامعه و تعلیم وتربیت، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر، ۱۳۶۵٫

فیوضات، یحیی، مبانی برنامه­ریزی آموزشی و درسی، تهران: مؤسسه نشر ویرایش، ۱۳۷۵٫

کافمن، راجر و هرمن، جری (؟). برنامه­ریزی استراتژیک در نظام آموزشی. بازاندیشی، بازسازی ساختارها، بازآفرینی، ترجمه: فریده مشایخ و عباس بازرگان، تهران: انتشارات مدرسه، ۱۳۷۴٫

گالن سیلور، جی و دیگران (؟). برنامه­ریزی درسی برای تدریس و یادگیری، ترجمه: غلامرضا خوی نژاد، مشهد: انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی، ۱۳۷۲٫

لوی، الف (؟). مبانی برنامه­ریزی آموزشی ـ برنامه­ریزی درسی در مدارس، ترجمه: فریده مشایخ، تهران: انتشارات مدرسه، ۱۳۷۵٫

مشایخ، فریده (ترجمه)، برنامه‌ریزی درسی در مدارس، تهران: انتشارات دفتر امور کمک آموزشی، ۱۳۸۱٫

مشایخ، فریده (ترجمه)، فرآیند برنامه ریزی آموزشی، تهران: انتشارات مدرسه، ۱۳۷۴٫

ملکی، حسن، برنامه‌ریزی درسی (راهنمای عمل)، مشهد: پیام اندیشه، ۱۳۸۰٫

[۱]. Technical – Scientific approach

[2]. Self – perception

[3]. Personal – preferences

[4]. Self – assesment

[5]. Self – integration

[6]. Rationalism

[7]. Empirism

[8]. Intuitionism

[9]. Macdonald

[10]. Aesthetic rationality

[11]. Technological rationality

[12]. Child – centerd

[13]. Problem – centerd

[14]. Ultimate objectives

[15]. Progress objectives

[16]. Charters

[17]. Curriculum

[18] – From the perspective of the curriculum Chartrz (Taken from the book Chartrz Curriculum, New York, Milan 1924)

[۱۹]. Principles of curriculum

[20]. Taba

[21]. Grass – roots

[22]. Top – down

[23]. Administrative

[24]. Diagnosis of needs

[25]. Formation of objectives

[26]. Selection of content

[27]. Organization of content

[28]. Selection of learning Activities

[29] . Resource: Adapted from. Galen and William M Alexander, planning curvicula for schools (Newyork: Hoit Rinehart 1974)

[30]. Personal development

[31]. Human relations

[32]. Learning skills

[33]. Specialization

[34]. Hunkins

[35]. Conceptualization

[36]. Legistimazation

[37]. Maintenance

[38]. Stuff

[39] . Resource: Gerald Weinstein and Macro D. Fantini Taward Humanistic Education (New York: Prague, 1970)

[40]. Weinstein and Tantini

[41]. Organizing ideas

[42]. Social awarness

[43]. Social skills

[44]. Cognitive skills

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مرتضی ایرجی راد در تاریخ سه شنبه ۰۹ مهر ۱۳۹۲ گفت:

مطلب جالبی بود.

Yaqubi On Tuesday 22 Persian date Bahman 1392 said:

با سلام خدمت شما!
بسیار تشکر می کنم از اینکه به موضوعاتی مانند برنامه درسی می پردازید. این جای بسیار امیدواری است زیرا این موضوع کاربردهای فراوانی دارد. ارادتمندتان یعقوبی

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